Authored By- Sakshi Pranav Mehta
1.   Abstract
            Media makes us aware of the social, political and economic activities around us. It is a mirror that reveals to us the bare truth or harsh realities of life. The news media, in any form be it in print form or TV/radio, its main task is to inform people about news that is unbiased and without any censorship or tampering. But since the time of social media has come into existence the meaning of sharing and creating is completely changed. The media can only put news and leave it on public to assess. While social media is a free space for people to put their views across and it can incorporate others opinions too, however contradicting the view might be.
2.   Introduction
            As per the latest trend and news, Indian Media & Entertainment Industry is to touch $30.6 billion by 2023[1]. In 2011, the Indian Media & Entertainment (M&E) Industry registered a growth of 13 percent over 2010, to reach INR 728 billon. The growth trajectory is backed by strong consumption in Tier 2 and 3 cities, continued growth of regional media, and fast increasing new media business. While television continues to be the dominant medium, it has become a household entertainment screen, sectors such as animation & VFX, digital advertising, and gaming are fast increasing their share in the overall pie, with the new movies coming with VFX effect are presently creating a new trend in entertainment industry. movies like RA-1, Bahubaali and the latest KGF are the perfect examples of VFX effects.. Radio is expected to display a healthy growth rate after the advent of Phase 3. Print, while witnessing a decline in growth rate, will continue to be the second largest medium in the Indian M&E industry. Also, the film industry have a reason to cheer, with multiple movies crossing the INR 1000crore mark in worldwide collections . The Indian advertisement industry is growing very well with the rise of 19% it is expected to reach the peak of Rs.254 billion in 2022,contributing to 41 percent of the overall M&E industry’s revenues.
Advertising revenues had witnessed a growth of 15.3% percent in 2020, as against 17 percent observed in 2010. The traditional media businesses experienced a slow down compared to last year, especially during the lockdown. However, the new media segments like Animation and VFX, Online and Gaming businesses witnessed phenomenal growth rates.
The media industry in 2011 in a nutshell –
• Print: with the dynamic changes brought in the print industry , the value of print industry across India was over 225 billion Indian rupees in 2021, It is further expected to grow with tremendous growth.
 • Television: Television Industry in India is growing rapidly, due to new trends and the new concept TVshows and reality shows ,it has become a very profitable market , In 2021, India’s television industry was worth approximately  720 billion Indian rupees . it is expected to further grow to 826 billion Indian rupees by 2024 , which clearly states how valuable this industry is , with the compound annual growth of five percent .
• Films: Film Industry is such an industry which evergreen, no matter what the situation is it always entertains us with the films and profits, though due to corona virus outbreak the film industry couldn’t do that good,it showed the value of around 183 billion Indian rupees , however it is said to be doing well in 2022 by growth of around 196 percent .
 • Music: After the hiatus in 2020, Indian music industry has made good comeback by showing growth of 20.3% in 2021. It is an industry that is growing rapidly ,with the entry of new music Apps like SpotiffyGaana, and other apps ,it is now taking a different progressive shape , it has been growing at an annual compound growth  of 15.78%  over last five years .
• Radio: With the growing other industries radio industry is also growing at very good pace , though the revenue of radio was not so good in 2020, the market size was projected to reach around 44.5 billion rupees by fiscal year 2024 .
[2]New Media: The digital advertising industry in2021 stood at Rs.70,715 crore, which 18.6% higher over 2020. This industry is achieving new heights every coming year the progress that is shown by this industry is amazing .it showed the growth of Rs.15,782 crore in 2020 to Rs.21,353 crore in 2021 , growing at 35.3%  CAGR.
• Animation & VFX: The increasing growth of the OTT channels has increased attention on animated intellectual property content and have got larger investment in VFX by studios  has created opportunities in both domestic and international markets.
3.   Democracy And Media
            “Media has continuously been a really vital pillar of the society. Apart from broadcasting the events, it additionally motivates this provides. The media space has modified tons with the event of social media. Media may be a platform that reflects the fact of the society. Within the world’s largest democracy Asian country, elections fit because the supreme faith. Planned Political selling is growing in at a speed with each party transfer in additional of newer tools and techniques to win elections. Even, regular opinions of celebrities encourage the general mass in making their own belief. This study displays the impact of media as a platform of nation building through political, social and cultural democracy. Give me the freedom to understand, to utter, and to argue freely in keeping with conscience, specifically liberties”. - John Milton. [3]Media is known as the fourth pillar of democracy. Freedom of press has continuously been a special right in all democracies. “Growth and development of representative democracy are such a lot tangled with the growth of press that the press has come to be recognized as an institutional limb of contemporary democracy The a part of media during a democratic system has been wide questioned. India has the most important democracy within the world and media includes a influential existence within the country. The media nowadays has well and really unfold its branches, From being restricted to the whims of a few people, it's come a long way to become a means of contribution. Democracy is essentially a rule by the people that is in distinction to monarchies or aristocracies. One of the crowing glories of the democratic system is the freedom of expression and therefore the space that is provided to views from different sections of the society. A democratic system will run to its utmost possible once there's wide participation on the part of the general mass that isn't possible without individuals get informed about various concerns. Reliable info resources are a vital ingredient of any democratic society. This is often wherever media steps in; Mass media in its completely different forms have influenced human life within the present century. They need primarily provided information and recreation to people across countries whereas the fourth estate has been so as for a long while, it looks to have accomplished its true potential and purpose within the new millennium solely within the true spirit of democracy as envisaged by Abraham Lincoln’s of being an institution ‘of the people, by the people and for the people This has been facilitated by the advent of the social media. With its capability to beat the geographical barriers and therefore the due to the near-absence of gatekeepers, the social media seeks to produce a platform of data - sharing to all or any the taking part people. this is often vital as a result of info and social awareness have emerged as vital factors of human direction.
4.   Importance Of The Press And Its Freedom
            The press has been given the duty of checking and leveling the administration and therefore the regime. Whenever there's any wrong happening within the the society .Press is that the only one to lift a voice. Moreover, we've got faith within the press to gather verify and pass around the facts and figures that influence people’s selections. If the press won’t have the freedom to try and do all this, the people are going to be within the dark. Therefore, we have a tendency to see however if even anybody of those liberties is removing from the press, the voiceless can lose their voice.
            Moreover, we have a tendency to see how censorship of the press is nothing but a dictatorship, once the govt. imposes censorship on the press, it clearly means that they're attempting to cover one thingSomeone solely hides lies and not the reality. Thus, this manner the citizens will be influenced into thinking there's nothing wrong with the govt. afterwardsonce there remains no agency to report the realitythe govt. can gain absolute power. In short, freedom of the press is vital for the graceful functioning of democracy. It's important for citizens to be socially responsive to happenings within the world. One should have the ability to criticize the government; it'll keep the administration on their toes to try and do higher for the country.
5.   Duty Of A Press

            “Freedom of Press isn't absolute, unlimited and unfettered at all times and altogether circumstances as it would cause disorder and anarchy.”The media contains a immense responsibility on their shoulder to relinquish society in right direction. They have to be alert and truthful. Media has an prestigious and a really necessary role to play in any form of government, whether or not democratic or totalitarian. The data that the media generates ,helps in shaping the views of the society. After you have such a power to influence the views of a full public, then you want to be even more matured. In fact, the media is typically additional prestigious and powerful than the govt.They need people’s belief and support. However, such an influence given to somebody or organization is sort of dangerous. In different words, any media while not restraints will be risky. As they need the ability to showcase somethingthey will present and report something and twist the facts as per their agendas. They need the ability to cause peace moreover as outrage amongst the folks. A press will simply manipulate the public’s opinion. This is often why we'd like accountable journalism to refrain the media from news false facts which can hurt the harmony and peace of a country.

6.   Power Of Social Media (The New Weapon)

            There are lot many sources of media and the persons following it are also huge. There are too many platforms that convey the routine news and media on social media. The latest and fastest known and used form of media is the mobile technologies. The mobile media is the result of fast internet services and origin of new mobile based technologies. Nowadays the use of social media is mostly through the use of mobile technology. The basic online platforms used are face book, instagram, whatsapp and other different messengers. In 2019, there were around 300 million active users on different social media platforms.
            Barack Obama’s use of social media in his 2008 Presidential Campaign has been wide acclaimed and written regardingat the same time, Obama’s ability to mobilize American youth not solely energized his campaign, however ultimately became his strongest choice section. Youth voters used social media to make a non-traditional voter-politician relationship with Barack Obama, however political following manifested itself throughout the campaign, and what this new, mediate relationship between politicians and voters may imply for the longer term of politics. A study by PR firm Edelman attributes Obama’s ‘landslide victory’ primarily to his self-made use of social media (Lutz, 2009). However what precisely is social media and the way will it disagree from social networking sites (SNS)? Social networking sites, that embrace Face book, Twitter, MySpace, blogs, and YouTube, area unit outlined by Boyd & Ralph Ellison (2007) as web-based services facultative people to:

(1) Construct a public or semi-public profile among a bounded system,
(2) Articulate a listing of different users with whom they share a association,
(3)        View and traverse their list of connections and people created by others among the system.

According to Kaplan &Haenlein (2010), social media encompasses technology that enables for user-collaboration similarly as User Generated Content (USG) that focuses on

individual participation and content creation. For Kaplan &Haenlein (2010), social media includes: blogs, social networking sites (such as Facebook and Twitter), content communities (such as YouTube), and cooperative comes (such as Wikipedia). This study uses Kaplan and Haenlein’s (2010) definition of social media with sole target blogs, social networking sites, and content communities.
            In India Prime Ministerial candidate NarendraModi had a start and their quality similarly as reach through social media is way quite that of the other parties. NarendraModi has the very best followership in twitter whereas in Facebook one will see several Facebook pages dedicated to him with right smart following. He was one amongst the first movers into the social media paradigm and it worked for him. AamAadmi Party too has got to provides a sure portion of its electoral success in city to the impact it may produce through the social media. but parties like Congress {and several|and a number of different|and several other} other political parties were late in realising the reach of the social media and also the quite impact it may produce.
            Nirbhaya case had cut deep into the heart of people of India irrespective of caste, creed or religion. The unfortunate incident inspired a whole generation to stand together for women’s rights and make the state answerable for its citizens. There were calls for social change that were not based on clichés of being holistic but on equality for men and women in opportunity and access, in education and familial structures. An important part in raising this debate was played by the media, both national and foreign. The amazing characteristic of the nationwide protests was never called for by any political party or a religious leader. It was a people’s movement and it was the conscience of the people who made them come out and demand justice for Nirbhaya. Television broadcast the developments all the time but people on the streets certainly were not watching Television. News reached them on their cell phone via Facebook and Twitter and also via other news sites. People received the reactions of prominent people who are respected and hold a special place in society on twitter and got bonded likenever before. With so many people pitching in, it was people’s movement. Media also seethed with anger. People connected with each other on social networking sites, offering an insight into how it has emerged into a space for nuanced debate.Media activism of a powerful kind, of a type that jolts people out of their comforts and brings them on a same stand calling for both, meaningful dialogue and action for a better future, is not to be shunned, but actively promoted through social media.
            Today, most of the talking happens on social media. India’s biggest chunk of population i.e. the young India spends a considerable amount of time on Twitter, Facebook and on mobile
 messaging applications. The reach might be questioned by traditional media players but today from politics to films, from an actor to a cricketer, everybody has a social media presence and is also using it effectively. With this new wave, brands realized that along with other mediums like radio, television, print, etc the consumer also happens to be on social media.
            Social media, a relatively newer entrant in the field of mass media, has proved to be more democratic than newspaper and television. Social media has provided the opportunity for citizens who are conversant with the medium to express their views about a number of issues. In many cases groups have been formed by likeminded people who discuss and debate over a number of decisions on the part of the government and seek new ideas for way ahead. The power of the medium can be easily judged from the developments in India in recent times. The barrier to communication is minimal in this medium which helps in the formation of a participative environment. There is also better empowerment of the users through higher level of interactivity and flexibility in selection of media outlets. The potential of the medium lies in its ability to be more personalized by offering user-created content.
            Nevertheless, there is the threat of advertising revenues influencing media outputs. Those who control considerable wealth have the opportunity to sway public opinion in their favour with the help of mass media. In the 2G scam the Radio Tapes controversy brought in focus the journalist, politician and industrial conglomerate nexus. Developments like these are a threat to democracy and undermine the media fraternity.
7.   Misuse Of Social Media
      The extreme use of social media is resulting in misuse and causing illegal use of it, which is in turn leading to different issues which are very concerning in today’s world. the overuse of social media by the society, is causing a risk to the society and it needs to be protected by making strict guidelines. In 2021 the information technology act has given certain guidelines regarding the use of digital media.
            As the use of technology is rising so is need to protect the common people from cybercrime is increasing. The excessive use of social media has resulted in the cybercrime. To bring control on these new guidelines in 2021 were released by the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology in February. Social Media intermediaries were given a 3 month period to comply with this rule[4].The IT Rules aims to empower ordinary users of different social media platforms and OTT platforms with a mechanism for redressal and timely resolution of their complaint with the help of a Grievance Redressal Officer (GRO) who should be a Resident of India. Special importance is given on the protection of women and children from sexual offences, fake news and other misuse of media. A three level grievance redressal mechanism has been mandated which includes the appointment of GRO, self-regulatory bodies registered with the MIB.
            While these rules were challenged by many on ground of violation of freedom of speech, the government clarified that these rules permit social media platforms to operate in India freely but due accordance to the law. The rule came at the time when country was facing difficulty in ensuring safety and sovergnity of the cyberspace and the personal data. Social media is becoming a important part of one’s life. Whatsapp currently has a user base of 390 million in the country, accounting of the largest no. of subscribers in the world[5].
            Instances of use of bad languages, defamatory content and hate speech in these platforms have become very common. There is persistent spread of fake news, rampant abuse of the platforms to share altered images of women and other contents that threaten the dignity of women and the threat to security. In view of such emerging challenges, the SC in 2018, in the Tehseen S. Poonawala vs Union of India case, directed the govt. to curb and stop dissemination of explosive messages and videos on various platforms which have tendency to create mob violence and lynching of any kind[6]. The court in 2017 observed that government should frame necessary guidelines to eliminate child pornography, rape and gang rape imageries, videos and sites in content hosting platforms and other applications[7].
[8]Key features of the IT Rules 2021.
1.               Due Diligence by the intermediaries.
2.               Prescribes certain requirement for online publishing.
3.               Prescribes the Code of Ethics for publishers of news and current affairs.
4.               Provides for the Grievance Redressal Mechanism.
5.               Provides for oversight by the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting.
8.   Conclusion
Freedom of speech and expression is the basic right of the democracy. However there is no freedom that is absolute and without any restrictions. Maintain a balance between fundamental right and ascertaining the reasonableness of the restriction has been a constant effort since the start.